Bladder cancer research has seen few advancements over the past 30 years

Although bladder cancer is the 9th most common cancer worldwide, mortality rates have remained relatively unchanged. In the EU, only 1 agent (vinflunine) has been approved in the last few decades. 1-3

Prognosis varies, with survival rates substantially dropping as the tumour progresses beyond the bladder.1 Managing bladder cancer can be challenging, as the majority of patients are older and many have comorbidities. This challenge is compounded once tumours recur or metastasize, and treatment options become limited.1,4,5

BLADDER CANCER CLASSIFICATION

Bladder cancer is generally categorised according to the depth of tumour invasion6-7

  • Non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (≈70%)
  • Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (≈30%)
  • Metastatic bladder cancer (≈4%)

MUTATION RATE BY CANCER TYPE1,2

bladder cancer statistics bladder cancer statistics

RESEARCHING THE ROLE OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM IN THE MANAGEMENT OF BLADDER CANCER

Bladder cancer is one of several cancers associated with a high rate of mutations, which may be linked to a heightened immunogenicity.7,8 The immune response to tumour cells may be influenced by interactions within the tumour microenvironment, as various types of tumour-infiltrating immune cells have been reported in bladder cancer.9,10 Understanding the role of tumour-infiltrating immune cells and the pathways governing the immune response can help guide immune-directed strategies specific to patients with bladder cancer.

TUMOUR-INFILTRATING IMMUNE CELLS REPORTED IN BLADDER CANCER10

cytotoxic cells (CD8)

Cytotoxic T cells (CD8)

t regulatory cells (FOXP3)

T regulatory cells (FOXP3)

macrophages (CD163)

Macrophages (CD163)